Cerebrospinal fluid CSF
Cerebrospinal fluid CSF is formed primarily in the ventricular choroid plexus- Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is contained in the Cavity that surrounds the brain in the skull and the forms spinal column. Choroid plexuses present in the ventricles of the brain secrete it continuously at a rate of 500mg/dl may day. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found within the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord of all vertebrates. CSF is produced by specialized ependymal cells in the Ceroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.
The function of CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid):
Cerebrospinal fluid CSF, (shown in blue) is made by tissue that lines the brain’s ventricles (hollow spaces). It flows in and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion them from injury and provide nutrients. It absorbs the waste of neural tissue. It nourishes the tissues of the central nervous system.
Normal Volume of CSF:
The normal volume of the CSF is 100-150ml.
|Volume||90 to 150 ml|
|Cells||0-8 lymphocytes /cu.mm neutrophils |
and erythrocytes are absent
|Chloride||118 132 mEa/L|
|Uric Acid||0.5-4.5 mg/dl|
What is it Used for?
A CSF analysis is used to measure different substances in your cerebrospinal fluid. It may include tests to diagnose.
- Infectious disease (Brain and Spinal Cord).
- Autoimmune disorders.
- Brain tumors.
- Alzheimer’s disease.
Symptoms of Brain or Spinal Cord Infection:
- Severe Headache.
- Nausea and vomiting stiff neck Confusion.
- Changes in behavior.
- Tingling, numbness, and pain in the legs, body, or face.
- Weak muscle spasms.
Sample Collections Procedure:
CSF is normally collected from the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord out lumber level by puncture with a long needle Collecting the CSF.
A physician In the ward, under strict aseptic conditions, performs the procedure. The specimen is to be collected in 2-4ml quantities in 3-4 sterile Screw capped bottles that are Serially numbered and must be sent to the laboratory immediately.
In case the CSF is to be cultured for MO tuberculosis, then at least a 5ml sample is needed CSF should be tested as soon as it arrives in the Laboratory.
The CSF is the first bottle that is sometimes contaminated with blood and should be kept inside Fluid from the second bottle is used for routine tests while the fluid from the third bottle is used for bacteria culture etc.
If tuberculous meningitis is suspected, the 4th bottle is kept undisturbed in a refrigerator to see Whether a pellicle or coagulum farms.
Otherwise, CSF must never be refrigerated (if for bacterial culture as it kills Influenzas) and should be kept at 37°C.