Sugar Test

Sugar Test

Sugar Test is a blood or urine test that measure the amount of sugar in your body. Historically, glucose was the first to be discovered. Since insulin was discovered to treat diabetes mellitus, the determination of glucose in the blood became an important test. For determination of glucose, it should be known that up to 10 mg/dl of glucose is lost in one hour if blood containing glucose is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time and this is because Glucose is actually converted into lactic acid. Even if a mixture of anticoagulant and sodium fluoride is used, this step can be avoided and the glucose concentration can be maintained for two or three days. If 5ml of blood is taken, then EDTA can be used instead of potassium oxalate in the mixture, so its use does not reduce the blood glucose.

Sugar Test

Is This Test Have Other Name:

Blood Sugar, Fasting blood sugar, Random blood sugar, BSF, BSR, Sugar Level etc.

How The Test Performed:

A Blood Sample needed, Urine Sample, Venous or capillary blood, Capillary blood is taken from the thumb or finger and has the following advantages,

  • Avoid pricking too many times
  • No need to centrifuge
  • And then there is no risk of glucose turning into lactic acid because it is measured immediately

Use of plasma or blood:

In some laboratories, the sugar test is detected almost in whole blood, while in some, plasma is given importance. Nowadays plasma is given importance for testing glucose. Glucose in plasma is slightly higher than in whole blood, the water content of red blood cells is less and is about 73% of cells and 93% of plasma. Glucose is more soluble in free H2O, thus glucose is more in plasma and to correct the result, multiply by 1.15 and then add 6mg/dl.

Methods of determining sugar:

  1. Orthotoloudine Method
  2. Reductive Method
  3. Enzymatic Method
  4. Glucose Oxidase
  5. Hexokinase

Enzymatic Method:

This method is specific for glucose and it is only for determination of glucose. The enzyme oxidizes glucose oxidase to glucose. Gluconic acid forms an oxide on hydrogen. Then, the oxide is converted to water and atomic oxygen on the hydrogen. Atomic oxygen then reacts with an electron acceptor, for example ferrocyanide, and is converted into colored compounds. The darker the color, the higher the concentration of glucose.

Clinical Interpretation:

In fasting, the level of glucose in the blood is up to 60-100mg/dl, if the level of glucose in the blood is less or more than that, then there are abnormal conditions.

Sugar Test


Fasting blood glucose value is very high if one has diabetes in which the glucose level reaches 500mg/dl. When the glucose level exceeds 500mg. So sometimes there are chances of hyperglycemia and its level increases up to 250mg in fasting and even in clinical conditions the glucose level becomes more than the normal amount.


When the glucose level is less than 40mg/dl, the following symptoms appear.

  • weakness
  • Problem
  • Panic
  • feeling hungry
  • Confusion

Why Need Blood Sugar Test:

You need a blood sugar test if you have symptoms are,

Symptoms of high blood glucose levels include:

  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Sores that don’t heal
  • Weight loss when

Symptoms of low blood glucose levels include:

  • Feeling shaky or jittery
  • Hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling dizzy, confused, or irritable
  • Headache
  • A fast heartbeat or arrhythmia
Sugar Test


High glucose levels may also be a sign of:

  1. Hyperthyroidism
  2. Pancreas disorders
  3. Stress from surgery
  4. Very serious illness
  5. Trauma

low blood glucose levels may be a sign of:

  1. Liver disease
  2. Kidney disease
  3. Underactive adrenal
  4. Alcohol use disorder

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