CBC Blood Test
CBC Blood Test, Blood supplies oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the human body and helps carry waste chemicals from the cells to be eliminated from the body through the kidneys and lungs. Blood circulates within the body within a system of vessels. Along with the plasma in the blood, blood cells also circulate in the body. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to every part of the body. White blood cells participate in the process of protecting the body from infection. Platelets bind to blood vessels and prevent blood from flowing out of the vessels.
Formation of blood in the body:
After the beginning of human life in the mother’s womb, the blood is in the yolk sac of the perfect embryo. After that, it starts in the liver and spleen. After five months of pregnancy, it begins in the bone marrow. By the time the baby is born, the process of blood formation is taking place in almost all the bones of the body. In later life, the mail is gradually restricted to certain bones. In a young individual, this complete blood formation is limited to the following bones:
Bone marrow (pulp) in the human body is about five percent of the body weight and can increase over time. Red blood cells and platelets are made from special cells in the bone marrow (stem cells). Their different forms. Seen on microscopic examination of the bone marrow.
The average age of a normal red blood cell is 120 days. Red blood cells do not have a nucleus. Cell size 8 microns. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to every part of the body.
Hemoglobin is a special protein molecule. The main function of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body. A normal hemoglobin molecule is made up of four different parts consisting of 2 alpha a and 2 beta b chains. Hemoglobin can also be written as aalbb. Hemoglobin with this sequence is called HD. A (hemoglobin A) is named.
- Male 14 to 18 g/dL
- Female: 12 to 16 g/dL
Breakdown of Hemoglobin:
Hemoglobin is always present inside red blood cells. The average lifespan of a normal red blood cell is 120 days. The hemoglobin molecule is released from the red blood cell. Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted by the liver in the intestines.
White Blood Cells (WBCs):
The group of white blood cells includes the following:
- Reasons for higher than normal Neutrophil levels,
- Bacterial Infection
- Heart attack
- Myocardial Infection
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Ulcerative Colitis
- Crohn’s Disease
They are related to the body’s immune system. They play an important role in the human body for effective control of all kinds of Infections.
Among the white cells in the blood, monocytes are the largest in terms of size. Monocytes enter different parts of the body and try to protect the body from various diseases. Since they are capable of taking in large molecules, they are also called macrophages.
Basophil levels are quite low in a normal individual. Basophil cells play an important role in allergic reactions. Many chemicals complete this process in the antibody-antigen reaction. These chemicals provide Basophil.
Their size is smaller than neutrophils. Eosinophils are called eosinophils due to their color absorption. Eosinophils have the ability to eat different types of foreign molecules. Eosinophils are involved in allergic reactions.
They are 2-4 microns in size and disc-shaped. Platelets contain many chemical stores which help in the process of blood clotting and bleeding. The normal level of platelets is 1.5 to 4.5 x10^9/l.
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Blood Film Examination:
This part of the CBC examines the shapes and sizes of the red blood cells in the blood. Following are the changes that occur in various diseases.
A normal person has about five liters of blood. Blood is a living fluid. Blood is divided into two parts:
Total Leukocyte Count (TLC):
The number of white blood cells in one cubic millimeter of blood is determined. The normal level of TLC is 4000 to 11000 per ml.
Causes of high TLC:
- Severe infection.
- White cell blood cancer
Causes of low TLC:
- Severe Infection
- A Plastic Anemia
- Bone marrow dysfunction