Immunology Test, The human body has an integrated system of immunity against various types of germs and other diseases. This system is called Immune System. It has the following main members:
- T & B Lymphocyte:
Lymph Gland, Macrophage and Neutrophil act as helpers of this system.
These specialized cells of the immune system are located within the lymph glands and produce antibodies and add them to the blood, which include immunoglobulins and M, G, A, and D.
These cells of the immune system circulate through the blood. Hypersensitivity reactions to various drugs and chemicals are caused by this immune system.
Their types are as follows:
Sensitivity Type One:
This process is very fast. It is especially useful in penicillin reactions. Immunoglobulin E participates in this reaction and many other chemicals are formed.
Sensitivity type two:
This reaction is slowed down by antibodies. Examples include glomerulonephritis and post-transfusion reactions.
Sensitivity type three:
The immune complex:
In this sensitization, the antigen-antibodies together form a complex and the presence of this complex initiates the sensitization process.
Sensitivity Type Four:
This sensitivity is initiated by a specific type of sensitive lymphocyte. This process occurs in the diseased organs in TB patients like lungs, intestines, meninges, etc.
Different immunoglobulin levels in the body are determined through electrophoresis. Through this test information can be obtained about the diseases and allergies of the immune system in the body.
|IgA||90-450 mg per 100/liter|
|IgD||30-40 mg per 100/liter|
|IgG||800-1800 mg per 100/liter|
|IgM||60-250 mg per 100/liter|
High blood levels of IgA, IgG, IgD, IgM:
- Their levels in the blood increase in new and old liver disease (Acute and Chronic Hepatitis).
- IgE levels are increased in allergies.
- T.B malarial bronchitis.
Decreased amount of IgA, IgG, IgD, IgM in the blood:
- Their levels decrease in AIDS.
- Prolonged use of steroids.
- Use of Superesants.