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Blood Group and Crossmatch

Blood Group and Crossmatch if you need a blood transfusion, and transplant your doctor checks your blood type and crosshatching to see if your blood or organ is compatible with the donor organ or blood. It’s a trial for transfusion done in test tubes to see exactly how your blood will react with potential donor blood. If your blood cells clump when mixed with a donor sample, the donor blood or organ is incompatible with your blood.

There are four main types of blood:

type A, which contains type-A antigens
type B, which contains type-B antigens
type AB, which contains type-A and type-B antigens
type O, which contains neither type-A nor type-B antigens

Blood Group and Crossmatch
The procedure of Crossmatch:

For a crossmatch procedure, We do 3 types of cross-matches:

Major crossmatch:

This is the most important one. In this procedure, we are looking for antibodies in the recipient against transfused red blood cell antigens (from the donor). Therefore, we need serum from the recipient and red blood cells from the donor.

Minor crossmatch:

This detects antibodies in the donor serum to the recipient’s red blood cells. Therefore, for this, we need serum from the donor and red blood cells from the recipient.


We also perform an auto-control with our crossmatch’s, i.e. recipient serum with recipient red blood cells.

In these procedures, washed red blood cells are incubated with serum at 37 C (e.g. for the major crossmatch, washed donor red blood cells are incubated with recipient serum). We then look for agglutination microscopically. In horses, we add complement (to enhance hemolysis) and look for both microscopic agglutination and grossly visible hemolysis. In horses, we also perform the test at 2 dilutions, 1:4 and 1:16.

We use the following guidelines for the interpretation of the crossmatch:

Crossmatch Result Interpretation
Major Compatible The transfusion can be given. Note that the crossmatch will not detect very low titer antibodies.
Agglutinins and/or hemolysins The crossmatch is incompatible and the donor should not be used*
Minor Compatible The transfusion can be given
Agglutinins and/or hemolysins Preferably, washed or packed red cells from the donor should be administered. In reality, dilution of the transfusion in the recipient usually eliminates any likelihood of antibodies from the donor affecting the recipient’s red cells.
Autocontrol Agglutinins and/or hemolysins This reaction is usually seen in animals with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. In these, interpretation of incompatible crossmatches is very difficult and a compatible donor may not be found.
Blood Group and Crossmatch

Why Need This Test

You need this test for blood transfusion or organ transplant, and you may also have this test if you have symptoms,

  • Thalassemia
  • Severe anemia
  • Or a condition that causes severe anemia,
  • Sickle cell disease
  • immune deficiency dieses
  • Hemophilia
  • Effects of Chemotherapy on Cancer
  • Bleeding disorder
  • Pregnancy
  • May be getting an organ
  • Bleeding
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Tissue transplant
  • Roadside accident
  • C-Section
  • Any major operate

You have a crossmatch if you are in critical need of blood.


Blood draws are generally safe for most people, but they do pose some risks. You may experience some discomfort or pain when the needle is inserted. You may also develop bleeding, bruising, or infection at the puncture site. In most cases, the potential benefits of blood typing and crosshatching outweigh the risks.

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14 thoughts on “Blood Group and Crossmatch”
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