Urine Protein

Urine Protein

Urine Protein, When your kidneys are not working as well as they should, protein can leak through your kidney’s filters and into your urine. Protein in your urine is called proteinuria or albuminuria. It is a sign that your kidneys are damaged.

Normal Protein excretion:

  • <150mg/day (albumin <30 mg/day) No detection by routine test.

Glomerular:

  • Fenestrated Capillary layer.

Filtration:

  • (Holes 70-100mm)

Membrane:

  • Basement membrane
  • Laminin enacting, type IV collagen Heparin
  • Epithelial cell layer
  • Filtration Salt (10-40mm)

Proteinuria:

Presence of Proteins in Urine:

Albumin: 30mg – 300 mg/day. Microalbuminuria:

Physiological:

Pathological Pre-renal:

  • Intraabdominal turners
  • Renal
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Hypertensive nephropathy
  • Post-renal
  • Inflammation in the lower
  • Urinary tract

How to Perform the Test:

  • Heat Coagulation test
  • Heller’s test
  • Sulpho salicylic acid test

Heat Coagulation Test:

Principle:

Denaturation of Proteins Disruption of Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary Structure of proteins.

Interference:

In this process, the albumin is present.

Procedure:

  • Fill 3/4 of the tube with a Urine sample.
  • Heat the upper part of the flame till turbidity appears & urine start boiling.

Observation:

Heller’s Test:

Principle:

Denaturation of Protein by concentrated acid.

Interference:

In this Process the Protein is present.

Procedure:

Take 3ml of Conc. HNO3, Add 3ml of Urine slowly by the side of the test tube.

Observation:

A white ring at the junction of two solutions.

Urine Protein

Sulphosalicyclic Acid Test:

Principle:

The acid reduces the pH of the medium, where proteins exist in cationic form, from the complex with an anionic form of acids.

Interference:

Protein is Present.

Procedure:

Take 3ml of urine, Add dropwise sulpha sulindac, and observe white ppt.

By Mehfooz Ali

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