Disinfection and sterilization
Disinfection and sterilization, Sterilization also refers to the removal of all microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, and spores of bacteria, whether they are capable of causing disease or not.
In this process also the items are sterilized but the spores etc. remain and the items are not completely sterilized. The chemicals used in infection are called disinfectants.
Difference between Sterilization and Disinfection:
In sterilization, the items are completely sterilized, while in disinfection, bacterial spores etc. are left behind, the items are not completely sterilized.
Names of Methods of Sterilization:
- From the heat
- From the rays
- From chemicals
- To boil
- Auto cleave
- Hot air oven
From the flame or Heat:
If an object is burned or passed through a fire, the germs are killed by the burning of the protein and its coagulation, only such objects can be heated over a flame. which themselves are not damaged by heat. For example, tweezers, knives, needles, glass slides.
Hot air oven:
It is a device used for sterilization where it is kept at a temperature of 160°C for hours to kill germs. The following items can be sterilized in Hot Air. For example, glassware, tubes, flasks, petri dishes, dry items in sealed containers. Cotton and other items that cannot absorb moisture. For example, oil, fat, grease, etc.
Moist heat (from boiling):
Boiling water in it at 100°C for 20 minutes kills all germs except spores.
Steam is held at 15 pounds of pressure and 121°C for fifteen minutes, killing all germs including spores.
It is a machine similar to a pressure cooker in which steam is used under pressure to sterilize germs. In it, surgical instruments and daughters etc. are sterilized. In addition, the culture medium is also sterilized.
This method is used to sterilize sugar media when the medium is kept in steam for 20 to 40 minutes at 100°C for three days, complete sterilization is achieved by steaming on the first day. They are done but the spores do not end. These spores turn into germs within 24 hours and are killed by steaming again, the process is repeated on the third day.