Anthrax Disease, Anthrax (Greek anthrax, coal) is a high-infection disease that is caused by Gram-positive, endospore-forming. Bacillus anthracis B. anthracis is found worldwide. Benthic is one of the most molecularly monomorphic bacteria, it is now possible to separate all known strains into five Categories based on the number of tandem repeats of various genes. Between 20,000 and 10,000 cases of anthrax are estimated to occur worldwide annually in the United States. In 2001 occurrence of 22 cases of anthrax spotlighted the real concern about anthrax as a weapon of bioterrorism.
For Successful infection, B. anthracis uses two Principle virulence factors to evade host defense. These are encoded on two Plasmids, one involved in the Synthesis of a Polyglactin my capsule, which Protects the bacterium from Phagocytosis by host neutrophils, and the tripartite Protein toxin, called anthrax toxin.
Types of Anthrax:
There are three forms of anthrax disease:
- Cutaneous Anthrax: (Affecting the skin) when the bacterium enters through a cut or abrasion of the Skin.
- Pulmonary Anthrax: Inhaling spores may result in Pulmonary anthrax also, known as wool sorter’s disease. It cause affecting the lungs.
- Gastrointestinal Anthrax: (Affecting the digestive system) if spores reach the gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal anthrax may real
Transmission of Anthrax:
It can be transmitted by:
- Direct Contact
- Direct Contact with infected animals (cattle, Goat, sheep) on their products.
- Breathing in spores
- Eating food or drinking water that is contaminated with Spores
- Getting spores in a cut or scrape on the skin
- Touch Contaminated animal products like (wool, bone, or hair)
Symptoms of Anthrax Disease:
The symptoms of Anthrax were the following:
- Fever and chills.
- Vomiting and fever.
- Loss of appetite.
- Abdominal Pain.
- Blood Vomiting.
- Severe Diarrhea.
- Anthrax begins with flu-like symptoms (cough, fever, muscle aches).
Risk factors of Anthrax Disease:
People can get anthrax after having contact with infected animals or their Products like bone, and hair. Sometimes People can get anthrax through Spores. People in certain occupations like veterinarians farmers, and livestock Producers of other animal products may have an increased risk of exposure.
Treatment of Anthrax Disease:
Treatment of Anthrax disease is with:
- Penicillin or doxycycline ( used for all three forms of anthrax)
- Vaccination of animals