Syphilis is a sexually transmitted Infection (STI) that can cause serious. health problems without treatment. Infectious develops in three stages (primary, secondary, latent and tertiary) Each stage have different signs and symptoms It is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact After the inactive Initial infection, Syphilis bacteria can remain in the body for decades before becoming active again. Early syphilis can be used Sometimes with a single shot (injection) of penicillin- Without treatment. syphilis. Can severely damage the heart, brain or other organs. can be life threatening syphilis can also be passed from mother to unborn babies.


How To Performed This Test:

A Blood Sample needed, Serum or Plasma.

Causative Agent:

Treponema pallidum, it is the Causative agent which Cause syphilis in men and women. It a gram negative spiral shaped bacteria and belongs to family spirochetes, By using same toilet, bathtub, clothing, of eating utensils or form doorknobs etc.

Risk factors:

Transmission of Syphilis:

  • Mother to child during pregnancy’s
  • Blood transfusion if not screened
  • Contaminated surgical y Dental Instrument
  • Oral Sex
  • Vaginal Sex and Anal Sex
  • Skin contact with sores of infected parts


Syphilis develops in stages of symptoms vary with each stage. But the stages may overlap and symptoms don’t always occur in some order.

Primary Syphilis:

In the primary stage, primary syphilis a small, round painless Sore called a cancer it generally develops 10 to 90 days after exposure, at the entry point of T pallidum, usually on the penis, vulva or Cervix, or in the vagina, or rectum on the mouth tongue or lips after oral sex or other parts of the body. Since the sore is painless if it is on the cervix, inside the vagina, or inside the rectum a women may not even know she has been infected.

Secondary Syphilis:

The secondary stage begins about this to ten weeks after some appears, as T. pallidum Spreads through the blood stream. The result is non- itchy rash, usually on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, but also in the mouth. other areas On the entire body.



  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Swallon glands
  • Hair loss
  • Muscles aches
  • Headache

Latent Syphilis:

Latent Syphilis cause are no symptoms, The infection can only be detect with a blood test. If it is not treated latent syphilis continues for life. Many people with latent syphilis never have serious problems, some progress to the final stage called Late tertiary syphilis. In this stage it may damage heart, blood vessels, brain, nervous system, Liver and joint.

Result of Late Tertiary Syphilis:

  • Blindness
  • Loss memory
  • Mental illness
  • Stroke
  • Or even death

Screening Test:


Collect the blood sample 3 to 5 ml in gel tube, Centrifuge the blood sample, after centrifuge this test IgG and IgM antibodies are detected in patient blood or serum against syphilis bacteria or treponema pallidum. Then the colored lines in control and test region will indicate positive test. Rapid plasma regain (RPR) a Syphilis blood test that looks for antibodies. Venerial disease research Laboratory.

VDRL test:

It checks for Syphilis antibodies the anti bodies detected in patient serum is called reagent and this kit used for RR or VDRL test. In which serum and reagent is mined for 8 minutes and positive cause is observed by presence of flocculation.

Confirmatory Test:

Confirmatory test for Syphilis, When Syphilis is detected by Screening test then these disease is confirmed by the following test which one more Sensitive and specific.


Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination, Test is indirect agglutination assay used for detection and titration of antibodies against the Causative agent of Syphilis. In this test gelatin par tides are Sensitized with T. pallidum antigen. In this test, patient serum is mixed with the reagent Containing the Sensitized gelatin particles.

The particles aggregate to form clumps when the patient Serum is positive for Syphilis.


(Florescent Treponemal antibody) absorption). Treponema pallidum antigen is mined with patient serum containing antibody and the fluorescence antibody is used and observed by fluorescence micro scope.


Other test of Syphilis:

CSF test (Cerebrospinal fluid examinant)

Dark field examination

PCR ( polymerase chain reaction)


  1. Penciline.

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