Party coffee cake recipe

by Mary Stone, 2018-03-10

This coffee cake is awesome and perfect for parties.

Preparation time: 20 minutes


Mononucleosis Test

Mononucleosis commonly known as mono or glandular fever, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Testing for mono typically involves a blood test that looks for specific antibodies produced by the body in response to the virus. The two main types of antibodies tested for are:

  1. Monospot test: This is a rapid test that detects antibodies (specifically heterophile antibodies) produced by the body in response to EBV infection. It can provide results quickly, often within a day.
  2. EBV antibody tests: These tests look for specific antibodies to EBV, including IgM and IgG antibodies. IgM antibodies usually indicate a recent infection, while IgG antibodies suggest a past infection or immunity.


  • Fatigue: Severe and persistent tiredness that doesn’t improve with rest.
  • Fever: Often moderate but can be high.
  • Sore throat: Severe sore throat¬†may resemble strep throat but doesn’t improve with antibiotics.
  • Swollen lymph nodes: Especially in the neck and armpits.
  • Swollen tonsils: They may have a white coating.
  • Headache: Mild to severe headaches.
  • Skin rash: Less common, but may occur.
  • Swollen spleen: Enlargement of the spleen can cause upper left abdominal pain.
  • Muscle aches: General body aches and pains.
  • Loss of appetite: Reduced desire to eat.

Is mono a sexually transmitted infection?

Mononucleosis, commonly known as “mono,” is not classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is part of the herpesvirus family. Mono is primarily spread through saliva, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the “kissing disease.” However, it can also be transmitted through other means, such as sharing drinks, eating utensils, or through close personal contact. While mono can be transmitted through sexual contact, it is not considered an STI because its primary mode of transmission is not sexual.

How is mononucleosis diagnosed?

Diagnosis typically involves the following steps:

1. Medical History and Physical Examination

2. Blood Tests

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): This test measures the different components of blood. In mononucleosis, there is often an increased number of white blood cells (lymphocytes), including atypical lymphocytes.
  • Monospot Test: This is a rapid test that detects heterophile antibodies, which are typically present during an EBV infection. It can give results within a day but might not detect the infection in its very early stages.
  • EBV Antibody Test: This more specific test can detect antibodies to several different components of the Epstein-Barr virus, confirming the presence of the virus and providing information about the stage of the infection.

3. Differential Diagnosis

  • Ruling Out Other Conditions: Because mono symptoms can mimic those of other illnesses (such as strep throat, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, or toxoplasmosis), the doctor might perform additional tests to rule out these conditions.

Additional Diagnostic Considerations

  • Age and Health Status: While mono is most common in teenagers and young adults, it can occur at any age.
  • Exposure History: Knowing whether the patient has been in close contact with someone who has mono can also be a helpful diagnostic clue. ,

How is mononucleosis managed or treated?

Rest and Hydration

  • Rest: Adequate rest is crucial as the body fights the infection.
  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of fluids helps prevent dehydration and soothes the throat.

Pain and Fever Management

  • Pain Relievers: Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help reduce fever and alleviate sore throat and body aches.

Throat Soothing

  • Gargles: Saltwater gargles can soothe a sore throat.
  • Lozenges: Throat lozenges or sprays can provide temporary relief.

Avoiding Contact Sports

  • Spleen Precautions: Since mono can cause spleen enlargement, patients are advised to avoid contact sports and heavy lifting to reduce the risk of spleen rupture.

Monitoring and Follow-Up

  • Medical Check-ups: Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider to monitor symptoms and recovery progress.
  • Complications Management: Watching for signs of complications such as severe throat swelling, respiratory issues, or significant abdominal pain.

Antibiotics Caution

  • Antibiotics: Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections like mono. They are only used if a secondary bacterial infection, such as strep throat, occurs.

Education and Support

  • Patient Education: Educate patients about the nature of the illness, the expected duration, and the importance of rest and hydration.
  • Support Groups: Emotional and psychological support can be beneficial, especially for younger patients dealing with prolonged illness.

Immune System Support

  • Healthy Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins can support the immune system.
  • Supplements: While not necessary for everyone, some may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements if recommended by a healthcare provider.

Can mononucleosis be prevented?

  1. Avoid Sharing Personal Items: Do not share drinks, food, utensils, toothbrushes, or lip products with others.
  2. Practice Good Hygiene: Wash your hands frequently and avoid touching your face.
  3. Avoid Close Contact: Limit close contact with individuals who are infected, especially avoiding kissing or sharing items that might be contaminated with saliva.
  4. Strengthen Your Immune System: Maintain a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, and stress management to keep your immune system robust.
  5. Awareness and Education: Being informed about the ways mono spreads can help you make conscious decisions to avoid risky behaviors.

While these measures can reduce the risk, they cannot guarantee complete prevention, as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which causes mono, is widespread and can be asymptomatic in many carriers.


By Mehfooz Ali

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