Blue Simple Medical Clinic Presentation 11Blue Simple Medical Clinic Presentation 11

100 FAQs of Histopathology

100 FAQs of Histopathology, These questions and answers cover a broad range of topics within histopathology from basic concepts to advanced diagnostic techniques and emerging technologies.

Basics of Histopathology

What is histology?
A tissue sample is examined under a microscope to research tissue diseases, which is known as histopathology.

What are the primary tissue types that histopathology examines?
A: Nervous, muscular, connective, and epithelial tissues.

A biopsy is: What is it?
A biopsy is a medical operation that involves taking a small sample of tissue for analysis.

What function does staining serve in histopathology?
A: Under a microscope, staining is employed to improve the contrast of tissue structures.

What dye is frequently used in histopathology?
A: Eosin and hematoxylins (H&E).

What distinguishes electron microscopy from light microscopy?
A: To observe tissues, optical microscopy employs light; for greater resolution imaging, electron microscopy uses electrons.

How does immunohistochemistry work?
A method called immunohistochemistry makes use of antibodies to find particular antigens in tissue slices.

What function does a pathologist perform?
A pathologist uses examinations of tissues, cells, and organs to make a diagnosis.

What is an analysis of frozen sections?
A speedy biopsy method that involves cutting, staining, freezing, and examining tissue in a hurry.

Confocal microscopy: What is it?
A kind of microscopy in which out-of-focus light is blocked by a spatial pinhole, hence improving optical resolution and contrast.

What does tissue fixation entail?
A: The process of halting biological processes and deterioration to preserve tissue structure.

Q: What is a popular fixative?
A: Lactoferrin.

What is histology embedding?
A: To make sectioning easier, embedding entails covering the tissue in a solid substance, typically paraffin.

Q: In histology, what does sectioning mean?
A: Slicing tissue thinly for microscopic analysis.

What thickness is the standard cutting plane for paraffin sections?
A: between four and five micrometers.

What does necrosis mean?
A: Uncontrollable cell death brought on by damage.

What does apoptosis mean?
A: Dead cells on a schedule.

What is inflammation?
A: The body’s reaction to an illness or wound.

What exactly are tumors?
A: Non-normal tissue growths, either benign or cancerous.

What is dysplasia?
A: Abnormal growth or development of tissues, organs, or cells.

What is the highlight of the H&E stain?
A: Extracellular matrix and cytoplasm are stained pink by eosin, while nuclei are stained blue by hematoxylin.

What specific stain is applied to connective tissue?
A: Trichrome Masson.

What is the PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) stain used for?
A: To identify polysaccharides in tissues, including glycogen.

What distinguishes using the Gramme stain?
A: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species.

What is the purpose of a silver stain?
We are highlighting specific creatures such as fungi and reticular fibers.

What purpose does cytopathology serve?
A: The examination of specific cell anomalies, frequently applied to cancer detection.

What is a typical immunofluorescence application in histopathology?
A: Using fluorescently labeled antibodies to identify particular proteins in tissues.

What applications does in situ hybridization serve?
A: Identifying certain DNA sequences in tissue slices.

What use does electron microscopy serve in the field of histopathology?
A: To offer granular pictures of the ultrastructure of cells.

What is the acronym for FISH?
A: In situ hybridization of fluorescence.

How is a cancer histologically identified?
A: When malignant epithelial cells are present.

What distinguishing feature of a sarcoma under a microscope?
A: Cancerous cells derived from mesenchymal tissue.

What does it mean when granulomas are discovered in tissue?
A: A sign of persistent inflammation, frequently observed in illnesses such as tuberculosis.

What do amyloid deposits look like in tissue?
A: When exposed to polarised light, exhibits apple-green birefringence and stains with Congo red.

What is Alzheimer’s disease’s primary histopathological characteristic?
A: Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques.

What do inclusion bodies entail?
A: Atypical intracellular clumps are frequently observed in viral infections.

What does metaplasia mean?
A: A differentiated cell type changing into a different one.

What does hyperplasia mean?
A rise in the quantity of cells within a tissue or organ.

What does hypertrophy mean?
A: A rise in the size of the cell.

What is atrophy?
A reduction in the size or quantity of cells.

What is rheumatoid arthritis’s histological characteristic?
A: Formation of pannus and synovial hyperplasia.

What histological characteristics are present in liver cirrhosis?
A: Nodular regeneration and fibrosis.

What is the chronic bronchitis histopathology?
A: Prolonged inflammation and mucus-secreting gland hyperplasia.

How is glomerulonephritis histologically identified?
A: Inflammation and modifications to the kidney’s glomeruli.

What are Lewy bodies, please?
A: Parkinson’s disease’s intracellular inclusions.

What is the PCR’s underlying theory in histopathology?
A: Genetic material identification through amplification of DNA sequences.

What applications does flow cytometry have in histopathology?
A: Examining the chemical and physical characteristics of individual cells or particles.

What is pathology digital?
A: The diagnosis of pathology by computer technology and digital imaging.

What is included in the definition of “molecular pathology”?
A: The investigation and diagnosis of disease by analyzing the molecules found in tissues, organs, or body fluids.

What use does next-generation sequencing (NGS) have in histopathology?
A: To find genetic alterations linked to illnesses.

What is a microtome?
A device that cuts tissue into incredibly small pieces.

What is meant by a cryostat?
A tool for quickly sectioning frozen tissues for analysis.

Q: Why do bone samples undergo decalcification?
A: To get rid of calcium buildup and prepare the bone for cutting.

What is autolysis?
A: The self-digestion of tissues or cells by their enzymes; frequently observed in tissues that have been poorly preserved.

What is the significance of preserving a sufficient fixation time?
A: Guarantees ideal staining quality and tissue preservation.

What is the Crohn’s disease histopathology?
A: Granulomas, skip lesions, and transmural inflammation.

What features distinguish ulcerative colitis’ histopathology?
A: Prolonged inflammation of the colon with abscesses in the crypt.

What features can you see under a microscope of psoriasis?
A: Extending rete ridges, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis.

How is histologically detected melanoma?
A: Atypical melanocytes and their dermal infiltration.

What does atherosclerosis look like histologically?
A: The development of plaque within artery walls that has fibrous caps and lipid cores.

What are the artefacts that are stained?
A: Unintentional alterations in tissue appearance brought on by incorrect staining methods.

What impact could air bubbles have on sections of histology?
A: They may obfuscate anatomical information and make diagnosis more difficult.

What effects does overfixation have on tissues?
A: This may result in excessive hardness and make sectioning challenging.

What is the appearance of a folded section artifact?
A: Overlapping layers of tissue that hide features below the surface.

What is the reason behind the tissue segment “chatter”?
A: The microtome vibrating or cutting unevenly, giving the material a wavy look.

What use does tumor grading serve?
A: It uses histological appearance to determine the level of malignancy.

What is meant by tumor staging?
A: It assesses how far cancer has gone throughout the body.

What distinguishes Hodgkin lymphoma?
A: Reed-Sternberg cells are present.

What is a crucial breast cancer histological characteristic?
A: Malignant cells invade the breast tissue around them.

What is the typical histology method for identifying prostate cancer?
A: Infiltration into the prostate tissue and aberrant glandular structures.

What is necrosis that clots?
A: Cell death that is commonly observed in hypoxic injuries, including myocardial infarction.

What is meant by caseous necrosis?
A type of necrosis that resembles cheese and is typical of tuberculosis.

What is liquefaction necrosis?
A: Necrosis, which causes tissue to become liquid and viscous, is frequently observed in brain infarcts.

Fibrinoid necrosis: What is it?
A: Blood vessel necrosis caused by fibrin buildup in the vessel walls.

What is necrotizing gangrene?
A kind of severe hypoxia-related necrosis that frequently affects limbs.

What role does a molecular marker play in cancer?
A: To pinpoint particular genes or proteins linked to cancer.

What is histopathology’s use of cytogenetics?
A study of the structure and function of chromosomes in cells.

What part do biomarkers have in the study of histopathology?
A: They support disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

What does a tissue microarray entail?
A technique for doing several analyses on tissue samples at once.

What role does epigenetics play in histopathology?
A: Heritable variations in gene expression that are studied to the absence of alterations to the underlying DNA sequence.

How does histomorphometry work?
A: The quantitative examination of the organization and structure of tissue.

What does decalcification mean in the context of bone histology?
A: To soften the tissue and eliminate calcium before sectioning.

What does autoradiography entail?
A method that makes use of radioactive isotopes to make material locations in tissues visible.

What does a reticulin stain become used for?
A: To emphasize reticular fibers, which are frequently utilized in the bone marrow and liver biopsies.

What is the fluorescence microscopy principle?
A: Labelling and visualizing particular tissue components with fluorescent dyes.

What role does the margin status have in tumor resections?
A: To ascertain whether the tumor has been entirely excised.

What role does lymphovascular invasion play in cancer?
A: It suggests that metastases may occur.

What is a biopsy of a sentinel lymph node?
A: A method to locate the primary lymph node where cancer cells are most likely to invade.

What purpose does a frozen portion serve in surgery?
A: To offer a prompt diagnosis to inform surgical choices.

How does angiogenesis relate to the expansion of tumors?
A: Tumours promote the growth of new blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients.

What role does quality control play in histopathology?
A: Guarantees precise, dependable, and replicable outcomes.

What are tissues under control?
A: Staining protocols are validated using known tissue samples.

What function do standard operating procedures (SOPs) serve in labs that study histopathology?
A: To guarantee uniform and standardized laboratory procedures.

What does proficiency testing entail?
A: External evaluations to gauge a histopathology laboratory’s effectiveness.

What role do internal audits play in a lab that studies histopathology?
A: To keep an eye on adherence to quality standards and pinpoint development opportunities.

What is pathology digital?
A digital platform for the collection, organizing, sharing, and analysis of pathology data.

In histology, how is artificial intelligence applied?
A: For the automatic interpretation and analysis of histology images.

What is telepathology?
A: The use of telecommunications technology to practice pathology remotely.

What do complete slide images (WSI) mean?
A: Complete histology slide digital scans at high resolution.

What possible effects might personalized medicine have on histopathology?
A: Customising care according to each patient’s unique genetic and molecular profile as determined by histopathology methods.

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