Bone Marrow Biopsy

Bone Marrow Biopsy a small and solid piece of bone marrow is removed with the help of a needle for microscopic study. It is soft Spongy tissue that has many blood vessels and it is found in the center of most bones marrow consists of two parts, One part is fluid and the other part is solid. Bone marrow is a fatty and spongy tissue present inside large bones. The most important cells of our blood such as platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is usually performed using a Jamshed needle. In adults human bone marrow is. primarily located in the ribs vertebrate stamen and bone of the pelvis. Bone marrow Comprises approximately 5% of total body weight in healthy adult humans.

Types Of Bone Marrow:

These are two types of bone marrow.

Red Bone Marrow:

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells which are responsible for producing blood cells.

Yellow Bone Marrow:

Yellow Bone marrow Contain mesenchymal stem cells which produces the non blood cells component of marrow including Cartilage and strong of fat. AT the time of birth the majority of bone marrow is red marrow. As we grow and mature grow red bone marrow, replaced by yellow bone marrow.

Bone Marrow Biopsy

Function OF Bone Marrow:

Human bone marrow produce 500 billion blood cells per day. The major function of bone marrow is generate blood cells.

Why Bone Marrow it’s Done?

  • If blood report is abnormal RBCs disorders Anemia, deficiency of RBCs, Hb%, Vitamin B12, or folic acid in blood.
  • WBC disorders Leukocytopenia, Leukocytosis etc.
  • Platelets disorders, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombocytosis.
  • Cancer of plasma cells (Multiple myeloma).
  • Abnormal bleeding or Clotting problems.
  • It Can be used to find out.
  • Rare genetic diseases.
  • Fever with an Unknown Cause.
  • To find out stem cells disorders.

Sites for Bone Marrow Biopsy:

  • Front or back of hip bone in adults and children above 2 years.
  • From Tibia infants and children under 2 years of age.
  • Procedure for bone marrow biopsy is done with local anesthesia.

Techniques of Bone Marrow Sampling:

There is two Techniques of Bone marrow sampling.

  • Bone marrow aspiration.
  • Bone marrow biopsy.

Bone Marrow Aspiration:

In aspiration bone marrow fluid is obtained by a special Needle.

SALAH needle and KAIMA, Needle are commonly used for bone marrow aspiration.

Bone Marrow Biopsy:

Bone marrow biopsy is done when their is failure in aspiration (dry tap) which may be due to wrong technique Leukemia etc.

  • Suspected A plastic anemia
  • Suspected Bone disorder

Sites of bone marrow sample:

  • Sternum
  • Anterior illac spine
  • Posterior illac spine
  • Tibia children 1 year old

Name of Needles that is used in Bone Marrows:

  • Jamshidi needle (can be used both biopsy and Aspiration)
  • Islam Needle
  • Westermann Jensen
Bone Marrow Biopsy

Preparation of Slide from Bone Marrow Aspiration:

A drop of aspirated marrow sample is put on each of several slides and smear are prepared with the help of Spreader. Dry the smear at room temperate Fix in methanol and stain with Romanowski stain the staining timing for bone marrow smear as longer than that of blood smear. One bone marrow smear should be stained with Perl’s Stain for the assessment of bone marrow storage iron.

Preparation of Slide From Bone Marrow Biopsy:

  • Bone marrow biopsy one performed if bone marrow aspiration is failed.
  • A small amount of merrow with bone places is taken by marrow needle in trephine biopsy.
  • Make the smears by gently rolling the Marrow biopsy specimen on a glass slide.
  • Biopsy specimen is fixed in either 10% formalin or belly’s fluid.
  • The biopsy specimen is processed by decalcification, dehydration, clearing and embedding to obtain the paraffin was block.
  • Less than 4 micrometer thick section are cut and stain with H and E.

Microscopic Examination OF Bone marrow Slide:

  • Cellularity
  • Megak day oiesis
  • Myelopoiesis
  • Erythropoiesis
  • Perase ties
  • Myelogram
  • M: E ratio
  • Iron storage
Bone Marrow Biopsy

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