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Urinary calculi

Urinary calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, are hard deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause significant pain and other symptoms. These stones are made up of minerals and salts that crystallize and stick together. The size of kidney stones can vary, and they can range from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball.


There are several types of urinary calculi, or kidney stones, each classified based on their composition. The most common types include:

  1. Calcium Stones:
    • Calcium Oxalate Stones: These are the most prevalent type of kidney stones. They form when calcium in the urine combines with oxalate, a substance found in some fruits and vegetables.
    • Calcium Phosphate Stones: These stones are formed when calcium and phosphate combine. They are less common than calcium oxalate stones.
  2. Struvite Stones:
    • These stones are often associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by certain bacteria. They can grow quickly and become quite large.
  3. Uric Acid Stones:
    • Uric acid stones form when there is an excess of uric acid in the urine. This can be caused by conditions such as gout or by a diet high in purines, which are found in certain foods.
  4. Cystine Stones:
    • Cystine stones are rare and are associated with an inherited condition called cystinuria. In this condition, the kidneys excrete too much of certain amino acids, leading to the formation of stones.
  5. Other Stones:
    • Other less common types of stones may include struvite-apatite stones and matrix stones, which contain a mix of organic and inorganic materials.

Identifying the specific type of kidney stone is crucial for determining the underlying cause and guiding treatment and preventive measures. This often involves analyzing the composition of a passed stone or using imaging techniques to identify the characteristics of the stone.


The symptoms of urinary calculi, commonly known as kidney stones, can vary depending on the size and location of the stone. Some people may not experience any symptoms until the stone starts moving within the urinary tract. Common symptoms include:

  1. Pain: The most notable symptom is often severe pain, known as renal colic. This pain can come and go and is typically felt in the back or side below the ribs. The pain may radiate to the lower abdomen and groin.
  2. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine): Kidney stones can cause bleeding in the urinary tract, leading to pink, red, or brown-colored urine.
  3. Frequency and Urgency: Individuals with kidney stones may experience an increased urge to urinate, and the need to urinate may become more frequent.
  4. Painful Urination: Some people may experience pain or a burning sensation during urination.
  5. Cloudy or Foul-Smelling Urine: The presence of kidney stones can sometimes lead to changes in urine appearance and odor.
  6. Nausea and Vomiting: In some cases, individuals with kidney stones may feel nauseous and may vomit, especially if the pain is severe.
  7. Fever and Chills: If a kidney stone causes a urinary tract infection (UTI), symptoms such as fever and chills may occur.

It’s important to note that not everyone with kidney stones will experience all of these symptoms, and the severity of symptoms can vary. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract without causing noticeable symptoms, while larger stones can cause significant pain and complications.


The interpretation of urinary calculi test results depends on the specific test conducted and the findings. Here are some general interpretations of common tests used to diagnose kidney stones:

  1. Non-Contrast CT Scan:
    • If the CT scan reveals the presence of kidney stones, the report will typically provide information on the size, location, and number of stones. Larger stones may require more aggressive treatment, while smaller stones may pass naturally.
  2. Abdominal X-ray:
    • An X-ray may show the presence of larger stones, particularly those that contain calcium. However, it may not be as effective in detecting smaller stones or stones made of certain materials.
  3. Ultrasound:
    • An ultrasound can provide images of the kidneys and urinary tract, helping to identify the presence and location of kidney stones. It is less accurate than a CT scan, especially for smaller stones, but it is a non-invasive option.
  4. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP):
    • IVP results will show the flow of contrast dye through the urinary tract, highlighting the structures and revealing any blockages or abnormalities caused by kidney stones.
  5. Urinalysis:
    • Urinalysis results can indicate the presence of blood, crystals, or signs of infection in the urine, all of which may be associated with kidney stones.
  6. Analysis of Passed Stones:
    • If a stone is passed and sent to a laboratory for analysis, the results will specify the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, uric acid). This information is crucial for determining the underlying cause and guiding treatment and prevention strategies.

By Mehfooz Ali

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