Quality ControlQuality Control

Quality Control (Lab Error)

Quality Control: In pathology laboratories, numerous tests are performed to diagnose many diseases, the results of which depend on the diagnosis of the patient and treatment. Variations and differences in laboratory reports are usually observed. Optimizing the published results and maintaining quality control are of utmost importance for any laboratory report. The findings and errors commonly encountered in the laboratory can be divided into three categories which are as follows:

  • Pre Analytical Errors:
  • Analytical Errors:
  • Post Analytical Errors:

Pre Analytical Errors:

This refers to all the results and errors that occurred before the test was performed and may cause changes in the laboratory results. According to a conservative estimate, 46% to 68% of wrong reports are due to wrong pre-analytical errors, reports. Pre-analytical errors are usually caused by the patient due to sample collection or sample handling.

Some of these reasons can be overcome and the quality of reports can be improved. The following factors are commonly reported by the patient to cause the change:

  • Patient diet
  • Use of medicines
  • Age of the patient
  • Sex of the patient
  • Pregnancy in women
  • Patient’s habits like exercise etc.

Sample Collection:

Sample collection is also very important to reduce errors. The following factors are generally involved in sample collection.

  • Time to obtain a sample
  • Procedure for obtaining a sample
  • A place to obtain a sample
  • Use of appropriate anticoagulation
  • Hemolyze Sample

Sample Handling:

The places to get more samples and the place to test is different. During this time errors have been revealed due to temperature.

Analytic Errors:

This refers to the errors that have come up during testing in the laboratory. The laboratory takes various measures to minimize these errors. Which is collectively known as Quality Control. Quality control refers to the laboratory’s efforts to ensure that the results it produces are of the best quality so that maximum benefit can be obtained from them. Errors encountered during laboratory testing can be divided into two categories.

1. Errors that are irregular with no consistency. These errors usually occur due to the following reasons.

  • Error in the procedure used to conduct the test.
  • Not mixing reagent and sample properly.
  • The temperature fluctuated during the test.
  • Glass wares used to be dirty.
  • Overwork in the laboratory leads to technicians taking shortcuts and changing procedures to perform tests.
  • Fluctuations in electrical voltage.
  • The presence of components in the sample that have affected the laboratory results.

2. Other types of errors occur with a configuration. All results differ from their original results by a certain amount. These types of errors occur due to the following reasons.

  • Using reagents that are damaged, not properly stored, or expired.
  • Errors in the procedure for conducting the test.

The following steps are taken to minimize the errors encountered in the laboratory:

  • Use good quality reagents.
  • Test according to the instructions issued by the Company.
  • Increase Technicians knowledge through Lecture.
  • Use good quality equipment.
  • Also install Control to check lab results.

There are two methods of laboratory quality control:

External Quality Control:

Internal Quality Control:

Quality Control

External Quality Control:

It refers to all the steps taken by the laboratory staff on a daily basis to check their results, to check the procedures adopted for the test and to check the functioning of the equipment.

National Quality Policy and Plan (NQP&P)

Through this program, it provides the best quality laboratory results to provide the best treatment and healthcare to the patients. Different standard laboratories are included in this program and different samples are sent to these laboratories for testing. Then their results are analyzed and the Mistakes & Errors of the laboratories are detected and measures are taken to prevent them in the future.

Internal Quality Control:

In this type of IQC, different laboratories test a sample and then compare the results.

Quality Assurance:

This refers to all the steps taken inside and outside the lab to make the results accurate and reliable. The following factors affect Quality Assurance:

  • Quantity of Anti Coagulant
  • Sample Container
  • Sample method
  • Labeling the Sample
  • Correct Test Advice
  • Transfer of the sample to the lab
  • Filling the form correctly
  • Technician skills
  • Quality Reagent
  • Equipment used in the lab
  • Test procedure
  • Reporting Procedures
  • Apply control to check the results

Post Analytical Errors:

P.A.E usually refers to the errors encountered while issuing the report after testing in the laboratory. These errors include reporting typing errors. Reports include errors of normal values written with This also includes matching the administered dose to the patient’s symptoms and clinical history. A standardized and internationally acceptable procedure should be followed while issuing patient reports. To report, choose words that are easy to understand. The help of software or computer can also be taken to control P.A.E.

It is important to preserve the results obtained during testing in the laboratory. And along with this there should be a report about the minimum and maximum result of each test. The results which are too high or too low should be taken from the concerned doctor before reporting and then the report should be made. It is also important to write a suitable introduction with each result. This helps the doctor understand the results.

Quality Control:

Quality control refers to all the steps that a laboratory takes to ensure that the tests performed are accurate. In quality control, information is obtained about all the sources that cause errors in laboratory results. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease depend on the lab results. Analytical errors must be understood to validate these results. Different terms are used to describe quality control in the lab.

Accuracy:

This refers to the consistency of the test results performed in the lab with the actual results.

Precision:

It refers to the consistency of the results of two or more laboratory tests conducted in the lab. (Close but far from the actual result).

Sensitivity:

It refers to the ability of the procedure adopted for the test to check the minimum quantity of the relevant item.

Specificity:

It refers to the ability of the method adopted for the test to check the specific chemical component concerned.

Standard:

It is a special state of a particular chemical compound. A solution of a specific quantity is prepared and used to check the quantity in an unknown solution.

Control:

It refers to a prepared solution in which the amount of chemical constituents is changed within a certain range. This quantity is known in advance and is used to check the quality of lab results.

By Mehfooz Ali

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