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Laboratory MCQs

Laboratory MCQs, Here are some questions with answers related to laboratory medical quality control. Quality control in a laboratory setting is crucial for ensuring the accuracy and reliability of test results.

How does Quality Control (QC) work?
A: Quality control (QC) is locating and reducing faults to guarantee that laboratory results are precise, dependable, and repeatable.

Why is quality control crucial in a medical laboratory?
A: To guarantee patient safety, accurate diagnosis, and successful treatment, quality control is essential.

What are the main goals of quality control?
A: To keep an eye on performance, spot mistakes, and guarantee the precision and accuracy of laboratory testing.

What do internal quality controls consist of?
A: Methods that use control samples to track how well tests are performed in the lab.

What do external quality controls consist of?
A: Programmes that allow labs to verify accuracy and consistency by comparing their findings with those of other labs.

What is meant by a control sample?
A: A known-value sample used to assess an assay’s accuracy.

What does a calibration entail?
A: The procedure of employing standards with known values to configure an instrument such that results fall within a given range.

What is meant by a standard curve?
A graph illustrates how known analyte concentrations relate to the associated instrument response.

How frequently should laboratory controls be run?
A: Whenever a fresh lot of reagents is opened or instrument maintenance is done at least once every shift.

A Levey-Jennings chart is what?
A: A graphical technique to show control outcomes and track an analytical process’ stability.

What does a systematic error entail?
A: An error that affects the accuracy of outcomes and happens consistently in the same direction.

What does a random error mean?
A: An inaccuracy that varies in frequency and impairs the accuracy of findings.

What exactly is a mistake?
A: A significant human error, such as mislabeling a sample.

What does bias in lab testing mean?
A: A regular departure from the actual value brought about by systematic mistake.

Q: Can you explain what accuracy means?
A: The capacity to test the same sample more than once and always obtain the same result.

What does it mean to run duplicate samples?
A: To evaluate the test’s repeatability and accuracy.

What does a control chart entail?
A graphical tool for tracking a process’s stability over time.

What are the rules of Westgard?
A: A collection of standards for assessing QC test results to ascertain whether the process is under control.

What does proficiency testing entail?
A: External quality evaluation, in which labs examine samples from a shared pool and contrast their findings to guarantee precision.

What are the main reasons why quality control fails?
A: Errors made by the operator, reagent problems, instrument faults, and environmental variables.

What part does QC play in hematology?
A: To guarantee precise blood cell counts and identification.

What part does quality control play in clinical chemistry?
A: To keep an eye on the precision of assays used to measure biochemical components in blood and other fluids.

How is quality control applied in microbiology?
A: By utilizing control organisms and making sure that identification tests and culture mediums are reliable.

What role does quality control play in immunology?
A: To guarantee immunoassays’ sensitivity and specificity.

How does quality control relate to molecular diagnostics?
A: By confirming that sequencing and nucleic acid amplification tests are accurate.

What role does documentation play in quality control?
A: To facilitate troubleshooting, provide a record of QC actions, and adhere to regulatory criteria.

What information has to be in QC documentation, and why?
A: Control lot numbers, outcomes, remedial measures, and testing dates.

What part do regulatory agencies play in quality control?
A: To create rules and regulations that labs have to abide by to guarantee the accuracy and consistency of their findings.

What is CLIA, please?
A: Quality requirements for laboratory testing are established by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments.

What is ISO 15189?
A global standard outlining the competence and quality standards that must be met by medical laboratory personnel.

When QC results fall outside of the expected ranges, what actions should be taken?
A: Look into possible reasons, carry out the test again, adjust the instruments, and record results.

How can one ascertain whether an error arises from the test procedure or the sample?
A: By evaluating the performance of the equipment and reagent and testing a fresh sample.

What are some typical reasons why calibrations fail?
A: Missing reagents, broken equipment, and poor procedure.

What impact might environmental variables have on QC outcomes?
A: Reagent stability and instrument performance can be impacted by temperature, humidity, and light.

What role does trend analysis play in quality control?
A: To spot slow alterations in test performance over time that might point to an emerging issue.

Q: How can QC be enhanced by automation?
A: By lowering the possibility of human mistakes, boosting output, and delivering more reliable outcomes.

What function do Laboratory Information Systems (LIS) serve in quality control?
A: To oversee the management of QC data, provide reports, and guarantee adherence to legal requirements.

How do devices for point-of-care testing (POCT) ensure quality control?
A: With the help of built-in controls and routine calibration examinations.

What difficulties does QC implementation present in POCT?
A: Ensuring appropriate training for operators, keeping devices calibrated, and recording quality control outcomes.

What role does digital imaging play in pathological quality control?
A: By offering high-resolution pictures to enable more precise comparison and analysis.

Q: How might automation improve quality control?
A: By increasing productivity, decreasing the likelihood of human error, and producing more dependable results.

In quality control, what role do Laboratory Information Systems (LIS) play?
A: To ensure compliance with legal standards, monitor the maintenance of QC data, and give reports.

How is quality control ensured by point-of-care testing (POCT) devices?
A: With the use of integrated controls and regular calibration checks.

What challenges does POCT’s QC implementation present?
A: Ensuring that operators receive the proper training, maintaining equipment calibration, and documenting quality control results.

What part does pathological quality control play in digital imaging?
A: By providing high-resolution images to allow for more accurate analysis and comparison.

Q: How can turnaround time (TAT) be shortened with the use of QC?
A: By locating inefficiencies in the testing procedure and putting fixes in place to improve workflow.

What effect do changes in reagent lots have on quality control?
A: To guarantee continuity with earlier lots, every new lot needs to be certified.

What effect does QC have on patient care?
A: By guaranteeing the accuracy and dependability of test results, which enable appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

What are control charts, and how do QC personnel use them?
A: Plotting QC findings over time in a graph to keep an eye out for any shifts, trends, or conditions that are out of control.

What range of outcomes is acceptable for quality control?
A: The range that control findings must fall into to be regarded as accurate, usually indicated by the manufacturer or using data from the past.

Pre-analytical QC: What is it?
A: Ensuring the caliber of the procedures used for sample handling, preparation, and collection.

What does analytical quality control mean?
A: Keeping an eye on the testing procedure to guarantee reliable outcomes.

What is post-analytical quality control?
A: Ensuring accurate reporting and interpretation of test results.

What steps can be taken to reduce pre-analytical errors?
A: By adhering to the right procedures for sample collection, accurately labeling, and upholding suitable storage conditions.

What kinds of pre-analytical mistakes are most frequent?
A: Mislabeled samples, improperly stored samples and a delayed lab transfer.

How often should one calibrate instruments?
A: As advised by the manufacturer or whenever there is a noticeable shift in functionality.

What does “reagent stability” mean, and why does it matter?
A: A reagent’s capacity to hold onto its performance traits over time, which is essential for reliable test outcomes.

How ought reagents to be kept in storage?
A: As directed by the manufacturer, usually in a dry, cool place away from harsh light.

What does a control run aim to accomplish?
A: Before testing patient samples, make sure the assay is operating properly.

How can variability in reagent lots be controlled?
A: By comparing every fresh lot to the

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