Giardiasis, Giardia intestinalis is a flagellated Protist (discovered by Antony van Leeuwenhoek in 1681, when he examined his stools) found in more than 40 animal species. Giardiasis is a diarrheal disease caused by the microscope Parasite Giardia duodenal (Giardia” for short once an animal or person has been infected with Giardia, the Parasite lives in the intestines and is present in the stool (poop) of the outside of the body Giardia can sometimes survive for weeks and even months. G. intestinalis causes the very common intestinal disease giardiasis, which is worldwide in distribution and affects children more seriously than adults.- This Protist is the most common cause of epidemic waterborne diarrheal disease. Approximately 7.1. of the Population are asymptomatic carriers who shed cysts in their feces.
Transmission Of Giardiasis:
Transmission occurs most frequently by cyst-contaminated water supplies. Humans may be infected from stream water with G-intestinalis harbored by:
- Cattle of household Pets
- From Person to Person or through contaminated water,
- Food surfaces on objects
- By Swallowing contaminated drinking water or recreational water (for example lakes, rivers, or Pools)
Symptoms of Giardiasis:
The disease can be Acute or chronic:
Acute: giardiasis is characterized by severe:
- Epigastric Pain
- Cramps and anorexia
- Voluminous flatulence (“Passing gas”)
Chronic: giardiasis is characterized by Intermittent diarrhea with Periodic appearance and remission of symptoms.
Diagnosis of Giardiasis:
Laboratory diagnosis is based on the identification of trophozoites only in the severest of diarrhea or cysts in stools.
Risk factor of Giardiasis:
- Travelers within areas that have Poor Sanitation.
- People who are in close contact with someone who has the disease.
- During sexual activity.
- Untreated water from springs, Lakes, and rivers.
Prevention of Giardiasis:
- Do not eat contaminated fruit and vegetables
- Avoid eating uncooked food
- Do not use drink inadequately treated water
- Avoid direct contact
Treatment of Giardiasis:
- Quinacrine hydro chlorine and metronidazole are the drugs of choice for adults.
- Furazolidone is used for children because it is available in a Liquid suspension.
- Water Purification and Sanitary analysis.