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Dementia is the loss of mental functions such as thinking, memory, and reasoning this is severe enough to interfere with a person’s daily functioning. Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such as getting stressed or eating. They may lose their ability to solve problems or control their emotions. Their personalities may change.

Causes of Dementia:

Symptoms of Dementia:

  • Memory loss
  • Loss communication skills
  • Language problem
  • Inability to learn
  • Difficulty with planning
  • Impairment of judgment
  • Inappropriate behaviour
  • Change personality and mood
  • Disorientation
  • Severe confusion
  • Neglect personal care
  • Agnesia ( unable to recognize the object of a family member)
  • Change in mood and change

Stages of Dementia:

  • Forgetfulness
  • Loss of interest
  • Poor performance at work
  • Fear forgetfulness
  • Social isolation
  • Irritable, anxious
  • Neglects personal hygiene
  • Forget family
  • Made to communicate
  • Loss of ability to sit and stand
  • Weight loss
  • Even death

Diagnostic Test:

  1. Family history
  2. Physical examination
  3. Neurological examination
  4. Mini-mental status examination
  5. CT scan and MRI
  6. KFT, LFT
  7. CSF culture
  8. Electroencephalogram
  9. Spinal fluid analysis ( show amyloid deposits)

Management of Dementia:

  • Haloperidol
  1. Behavioural therapy
  2. Maintain hygiene
  3. Antidepressants
  4. Anxiolytic agents


By Mehfooz Ali

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