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Otosclerosis or hardening of the ear results from the formation of abnormal sponge-like bone growth along the shapes in the middle ear. Shapes become immobile preventing transmission of sound vibration into the ear, leading to conductive hearing loss.


  • Idiopathic ( exact cause is unknown )
  • Hereditary
  • Viral infections ( measles may also trigger)
  • Sex hormones( more common in females- twice as compared to males)
  • Parathyroid hormone

Classification of Otosclerosis:

This type of otosclerosis does not produce any symptoms during life but is revealed only in postmortem

1-Stapedial Otosclerosis:

The osteosclerotic focus may produce ankylosis of shapes causing conductive hearing loss.

2- Cochlear Otosclerosis:

The otosclerotic process infringes upon the membranous labyrinth producing sensorineural deafness.

3- Mixed otosclerosis:

Causes both fixation of the stapes and the involvement of the labyrinth so that there is mixed hearing loss.

Pathophysiology of Otosclerosis:

  • Due to etiological factors
  • The remodeling process of stapes becomes faulty
  • Gradually abdominal bone growth
  • Reduces movement of stapes

Signs and Symptoms of Otosclerosis:

  • Loss of hearing
  • Hardening of ear
  • Dizziness
  • Tinnitus(ringing)sensation
  • Otalgia

Diagnosis of Otosclerosois:

  • Audio-metric testing(determine the intent of hearing loss)
  • Imaging
  • Vestibular Testing
  • Whisper Test
  • Rinnes Test
  • Weber Test

Management of Otosclerosis:

1- Stapedectomy

2- Stapedotomy

3- Hearing Aids


By Mehfooz Ali

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