D-Dimer TestD-Dimer Test

D-Dimer Test

D-Dimer Tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. A blood clot can cause health problems. A D-Dimer test looks for D-dimer in blood D-dimer is a protein fragment (small piece) that is made when a blood clot dissolves in your body. A blood clot is important that prevent you from losing too much blood when you are injured, normally blood will dissolve the clot once an injury has healed. Sometimes the conditions may be very serious and even may cause death. Sometimes they injured vessels, arteries, etc. Platelets immediately adhere to the cut edges of the vessels and release chemicals to attract even more platelets. A platelets plug is formed and the external bleeding stops. Next small molecules called clotting factors that cause stands of blood bone materials called fibrin to stick together and seat inside of the wound. The cut blood clot dissolves. After a few days, plasmin is an enzyme breakdown. The clot for removal. The broken fibrin fragments are termed fibrin Degradation products (FDPs). One of the fibrin degradation products D-Dimer normally undetectable in the blood. If present for a long time and not dissolved it will make a thrombus and will lead to embelin also. Due to blood clots, blood circulation will be affected and the supply of oxygen will be affected because of blood Clots in the vessels.

D-Dimer Test

How The Test Performed:

A Blood Sample Needed. Plasma (Sodium Citrate).

Presence of Fibrin Degradation:

  • Blood vessels
  • In Arteries
  • In Veins

Causes Of D-Dimer Test:

Hight D- Dimes Test (>0.5 u/mL)

  • Deep Vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Stroke
  • Covid-19 infection

False Positive:

  • Trauma
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Thrombosis
  • Embolism
  • Advance age
  • Pregnancy‘s Surgery
  • Heart disease
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

Reference Range of D-Dimer Test:

  • Less than 0.4 mcg/mL
  • Less than 250 ng/ml

Cause of Increase D-Dimer Test:

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Symptoms:

  • Leg pain or tenderness
  • Leg Swelling

Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Symptoms:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Rapid heat beat
  • DIC (Disseminated intravascular Coagulation) formation of clot in where body
  • Renal failure
  • Liver failure
  • Dengue
  • Malignancies (Like Cancer)

Procedure:

Take a blood sample in sodium citrated vail, and centrifuge the sample , then use the FDP kit. FDP kit have following variables,

  • Latex Reagent
  • Positive Control
  • Negative Control
  • Sample
  1. Take a petri slide that have a 5 to 6 circles.
  2. Now, Add the 3 drops of latex reagent first 3 circles.
  3. Then put 1 drop of positive control and the first circle and put negative control on the second circle.
  4. After the process put the put the one drop of serum on the third circle.
  5. Start the stop watch for 3 minutes and rotate the slide until end the time.
  6. After complete the process you can check result.
D-Dimer Test

Result Interpretation:

Agglutination in the Sample of the agglutination show the result is Positive. Result above 250ng/ml and more than 0.4mcg/ml will be Considered abnormal and will indicate blood clot in the blood vessels.

Treatment OF D-Dimer:

  • Anticoagulants
  • Thrombolytics
  • Thrombectomy

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