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Cataract, A cataract is a clouding and opacity of the lens of the eye. In which complete opacity and obstruction of the passage of light and loss of vision. A condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy. Cataracts in the eye lens are a later-in-life reality leading to many people’s vision problems. It is a clouding or opacity that develops in the eye’s lens, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstruction and obstructing the passage of light. Cataracts typically progress slowly to cause vision loss and are blinding if untreated. It is the most common cause of reversible blindness in the world.

Types of Cataracts:

  1. Congenital cataract
  2. Acquired cataract


Some common symptoms of cataracts include:

  1. Blurred Vision: Vision may become increasingly blurred, making it difficult to see clearly, especially in low-light conditions.
  2. Faded Colors: Colors may appear less vibrant or faded, making it hard to distinguish between different shades.
  3. Glare Sensitivity: Increased sensitivity to glare from lights, such as headlights or sunlight, which can cause discomfort or difficulty seeing.
  4. Halos Around Lights: Seeing halos or rings around lights, particularly at night or in low-light situations.
  5. Double Vision: Seeing double vision in one eye, can interfere with daily tasks and cause confusion.
  6. Frequent Changes in Eyeglass Prescription: Needing to change eyeglass prescriptions more frequently than usual due to vision changes.
  7. Difficulty Seeing at Night: Difficulty seeing clearly at night or in dimly lit environments.
  8. Poor Night Vision: Reduced ability to see clearly in low light, making it challenging to navigate in the dark.
  9. Difficulty Reading or Watching Television: Struggling to read small print or watch television due to blurry vision.
  10. Decreased Depth Perception: Difficulty judging distances accurately, which can impact activities such as driving or sports.

Etiology of Cataract:

  • Age above 50 years
  • Eye trauma
  • Infection in pregnant women
  • Eye disorder – retinitis

Risk factors of Cataract:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Heredity
  • long time heat exposure
  • Medications
  • Others eye disease
  • Ultraviolet rays

Clinical Features of Cataracts:

  • Loss of vision
  • Fatigue
  • Decreased color perception
  • Blurred image
  • Restlessness
  • Headache
  • Photophobia

Diagnostic Test for Cataract:

  • History collection
  • Physical examination
  • Slit lamp test
  • Snellen optic test
  • Ophthalmoscope
  • Retinoscopy

Surgical Management of Cataracts:

  1. Extracapsular cataract extraction
  2. Intra-capsular cataract extraction
  3. Intra-capsular lens implantation
  4. Contact lens
  5. Cryo-surgery
  6. Phacoemulsification

By Mehfooz Ali

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